Comparing the Components of Children's Physical Fitness in Relation to the Role of Air Pollution in Tehran, Iran

Authors

1 Department of Physical Education, Ardebil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardebil, Iran

2 Department of Physical Education, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Department of Physical Education, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran

4 Department of physical education, Payam Noor University, POBOX 19395-3697

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the components of children's physical fitness in relation to the role of air pollution in Tehran, Iran. The research method was a causal-comparative study. To achieve the research goals, 80 students of elementary school in fourth grade (10.3 ± 0.1) in Tehran, Iran were selected through available sampling. In the research phase, the researcher referred to Tehran Quality Control System, and based on the average of pollutant indicators in the past month, two Districts of Tehran, Iran were selected; District  1 (Aghdasiyeh) as the least infectious and District 20 (Rey) as contaminated. Then, the arrangement was performed to carry out physical fitness tests. The data was collected in two days. On the first day, participants performed physical fitness tests at Negin Shahr Rey Club and on the second day at the Royal Club in Aghdasiyeh district. Data was analyzed by independent t-test. The results showed that there was a significant difference between speed and agility components in two Districts 1 and 20, while there were no significant differences between power and flexibility components. Comparison of means indicated that children in area 1 had better performance than District 20. According to the results, it is suggested that the high amount of air pollution prevent children from engaging in physical activity and consider physical education teachers to take on activities that require less energy requirements.

Keywords


Aali SH, Rezazadeh F (2013) Comparison of physical fitness of blind and deaf children with regular counterparts. Sport medicine studies, 14, 135-150.
Air Pollution Conference and Its Effects on Health. (2005) Pure Environmental Research Institute.
Babran S, Ghamkhar AR (2005) Damage to Tehran Air Pollution, Sustainable Development and Environment. Journal of Sustainable Development and Environment, 2.
Bae S, Pan X, Kim SY, Park K, Kim YH, Kim H (2009) Air pollution causes oxidative stress in school children. Epidemiology, 20(6), S26.
Carlisle AJ, Sharp NC (2001) Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution. Br J Sports Med, 35(4), 214-222.
Edington D, Edgerton VR (2004) The biology of physical activity. 5th ed. Tehran: Samt.
Firouzi M, Sedaghat-e- Kaboli MR, Haghighi L (2012) Deficiency of glucose-6 – phosphate dehydrogenase in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. Razi Med J, 8(23), 52-56.
Golkar F, Farahmand AR (2010) Environmental pollution. 1st ed. Tehran, Iran: Mandegar Publications.
Gallahue DL, Cleland-Donnelly F (2007) Developmental physical education for all children. Human Kinetics.
Hulk F (2005) Investigating the patterns of airborne particulate pollutant changes in Tehran, air pollution conference and its effects on health.
Jaakkola JJK, Nafstad P, Magnus P (2001) Environmental tobacco smoke, parental autopsy, and childhood asthma. Environ Health Perspect, 109, 579-82.
Kargarfard M, Poursafa P, Rezanejad S, Mousavinasab  F (2011) Effects of exercise in polluted air on the aerobic power, serum lactate level and cell blood count of active individuals. Int J Prev Med, 2(3), 145-150.
Katsouganni K (2003) Ambient air pollution and health, Br Med Bull, 68(1), 143-156.
Koseoglu M, Hur A, Atay A, Cuhadar S (2011) Effects of hemolysis interferences on routine biochemistry parameters. Biochem Med (Zagreb), 21(1), 79-85.
Koushki Jahromi M (2002) 1 st ed. Tehran, Iran: Samt Publications.
Kymisis M, Hadjistavrou K (2008) Short-term effect of air pollution levels on pulmonary function of young adults. The Internel Journal of pulmonary medicine, 9(2). [Online]. Available from:URL: http://www.ispub.com/journal/the-internetjournal-of-pulmonary-medicine/volume-9- number-2/short-term-effects-of-air-pollutionlevels-on-pulmonary-function-of-youngadults.html#sthash.PHKlbera.dpbs
Lawrence, A. Impact of Environment on exercise. Trans.
Gayyny AA, Hamedi Nia MR, Mohamadi H (2002) The Effect of Climatic Elements and Air Pollutants of Tehran on Asthma during the Period from 1996 to 2006, Journal of the Faculty of Literature & Humanities of Tehran University.
Nikolic M, Nikic D, Stankovic A (2008) Effect of air pollution on red blood cells in children. Polish J of Environ Stud, 17(2), 267-71.
Peeling P, Dawson B, Goodman C, Landers G, Wiegerinck ET, Swinkels DW (2009) Training surface and intensity: inflammation, hemolysis, and hepcidin expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 41(5), 1138-1145.
Pope CA, Bates DV, Raizenn ME (1995) Health Perspective, 103, 427-480.
Pourianejad F (2005) Relationship between Climatic Elements and Pollutants in Tehran City with the Deaths due to Bronchitis, MSc Thesis (Science and Research Unit).
Rail T, Vatrmvs J (2005) Physical activity and environmental physiology. Trans. Avandi SM, Zar A, Tavazo I. 1 st ed. Tehran, Iran: Science and Motion Publications.
Robinson Y, Cristancho E, Boning D (2006) Intravascular hemolysis and mean red blood cell age in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 38(3), 480-483.
Routledge HC, Ayres JG (2005) Air pollution and the heart. Occup Med, 55, 439-447.
Safavi R (2002) Introduction to Iran's Military Geography, (Geographical Analysis of Tehran's Security), Geographic Organization of the Armed Forces Publications.
Schwartz, J., & Morris, R. (1995). Air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Detroit, Michigan. Am J Epidemiol, 142, 23-35.
Schwartz J (1991) Particulate air pollution and daily mortality: a synthesis. Public health Rew, 19, 39-60.
Seaton A, Macnee W, Donaldson K (1995) Particular air pollution and acute health effects. Lanset, 345, 176-178.
Wichman HE, Heinrich J (1995) Health effects of high level exposure to traditional pollutions in East Germany”, Environ. Health pers, 103, 29-353.
Vujovic A, Kotur-Stevuljevic J, Kornic D, Spasic S, Spasojevic-Kalimanovska V, BogavacStanojevic N (2010) Oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in schoolchildren residing in a petrochemical industry environment. IndianPediatr, 47(3), 233-239.
Wu HJ, Chen KT, Shee BW, Chang HC, Huang YJ, Yang RS (2004) Effects of 24 h ultra-marathon on biochemical and hematological parameters. World J Gastroenterol, 10(18), 2711-2714.
Volume 1, Issue 1 - Serial Number 1
September 2017
Pages 34-39
  • Receive Date: 29 September 2017
  • Revise Date: 08 October 2017
  • Accept Date: 22 October 2017
  • First Publish Date: 22 October 2017