Analysis of urban sprawl and its role in the trend of green space changes Case study: City of Yazd

Document Type : REVIEW PAPER


1 Ph.D student of Zanjan University

2 Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geography, Collage of Humanity, Tarbiat Modares University

3 Ph.D. student of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geography, Collage of Humanity, Zanjan University



Physical urban growth has the most significant impact on the vegetation of surrounding areas; the assessment and analysis of these changes are essential in geography and use different mechanisms. Here, remote sensing is the main technology for assessing expansion and the rate of change of land cover. Accordingly, the present study has been conducted with the aim of evaluating the physical growth of the city of Yazd in the years 1986–2016 and its impact on the trend of urban green space changes through the use of satellite images. This is an exploratory-descriptive research and it is cognitive in terms of the objective. To achieve this objective, the data from remote sensing and geographic information systems are used. The calculation of the trend of physical growth changes indicates that the city area was 3,118.25 hectares in 1986 and it increased to 15,232.47 hectares during a 30-year period; 52 percent of the urban growth was related to the horizontal and sprawl growth of the city. Assessment of the NDVI index showed that the density of vegetation had a tangible decreasing trend so that the sum of good and excellent vegetation was equal to 2,419 hectares in 1986; in 2016, the vegetation decreased to only 1,601 hectares. The maximum decrease in vegetation exactly corresponds with the maximum physical urban growth in the northwestern and the southeastern parts of the city such that the results of the research showed about 818 hectares of vegetation and gardens became constructed lands between 1986 and 2016


Abbas Zadeh Q (2004) Modeling the physical growth of urban texture with the purpose of sustainable development; A case study of Mashhad. M.A. Thesis: Ferdowsi Mashhad University: 23: 1-165.
Ahad-Nejad M, Zolfi A, Shokripoor H (2011) Assessment of physical expansion of cities using multi-time satellite imagery and GIS (Case study: Ardabil city, 1363-1400), Journal of Environmental Education, No. 15: 107-124.
Anderson W, Kanaroglou P, Miller, E (1996), Urban Form, Energy and the Environment, aReview of Issuse and Policy, Urban Studies, Vol.33, No.1: 7-35.
Angel S, Parent J, Civco D (2007) Urban sprawl metrics: an analysis of global urban expansion using GIS. Proceedings of ASPRS 2007 Annual Conference, Tampa, Florida May: 7-11.
Beaubien J (1994) Landsat TM Satellite Images of Forests: from enhancement to classification, Canadian journal of Remote Sensing. Vol. 20: 17-26.
Bertaud A, Malpezzi S (2003) The Spatial Distribution of Population in 48 World Cities: Implications for Economies in Transition. the Center for Urban Land Economics Research. University of Wisconsin.24: 1-162.
Bhatta B (2010) Analysis of Urban Growth and Sprawl from Remote Sensing Data, Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York, p:1-172.
Bhatta B, Saraswati D, Bandyopadhyay D (2010) Urban sprawl measurement from remote sensing data, Applied Geography 30: 731–740.
Bhatta B, Saraswati S, Bandyopadhyay D (2010) Quantifying the Degree-of-freedom,  Degree-of-sprawl, and Degree-of-goodness of Urban Growth from Remote Sensing Data, Applied Geography, Vol. 30, No. 1: 96-111.
Bogart W (2009) Don’t Call It Sprawl: Metropolitan Structure in the 21st Century; New York, Cambridge University Press. 40: 166-196.
Catalan B, Saury D, Serra P (2008) Urban sprawl in the Mediterranean? Patterns of growth and change in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region. 17: 1993-2000.
Coisnon T, Oueslati W, Salanié J (2014) Urban sprawl occurrence under spatially varying agricultural amenities. Regional Science and Urban Economics. 44: 38–49.
Deep Sh, Akansha S (2014) Urban sprawl modeling using cellular automata, The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences. 17: 179–187.
Dewan AM, Yamaguchi Y (2009) Land use and land cover change in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh: Using remote sensing to promote sustainable urbanization, Applied Geography. 29: 390–401.
Ebrahim_Zade E, Rafie GH (2008) Optimal location of urban development by using the Geographic Information System Case study: Marvdasht, Geography and Development, No. 15: 35-70.
El-Kawy A, Rød JK, Ismail HA, Suliman AS (2011) Land Use and Land Cover Change Detection in the Western Nile Delta of Egypt Using Remote Sensing Data, Applied Geography, Vol. 31: 483-494.
Estoque, R, Murayama Y (2015) Intensity and spatial pattern of urban land changes in the megacities of Southeast Asia. Land Use Policy, 48: 213–222.
Ewing R, Hamidi Sh, Gracec JB, Dennis Weid Y (2016) Does urban sprawl hold down upward mobility?, Landscape and Urban Planning. 148: 80–88.
Ewing R, Schmid T, Killingsworth R, Zlot A, Ruadenbush S (2003) Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Physical of Health Promotion, September/ October 2003, Vol.18, No.1: 47-57.
Gandaseca S, Sabang J, Ahmed OH. Majid, N (2009) Vegetation Assessment of Peat Swamp Forest Using Remote Sensing, American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, Vol. 4: 167-172.
Halleux JM, Marcinczak S, Krabben E (2012) The adaptive efficiency of land-use planning measured by the control of urban sprawl. The cases of the Netherlands, Belgium and Poland. Land Use Policy, 29: 887–898.
Han J, hayashi, Y, Imura H (2009) application of an integrated system dynamics and cellular automata model for urban growth assessment:A case study of shanghai,china Landscape and Urban Planning. 91: 133–141.
Haregeweyn N, Fikadu G, Tsunekawa A, Tsubo M, Meshesha D (2012) The dynamics of urban expansion and its impacts on land-use/land cover change and small-scale farmers living near the urban fringe: A case study of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Landscape and Urban Planning, 106(2): 149–157.
Jiang G, Wenqiu Ma, Yanbo Qu, Ruijuan Zh, Dingyang Zh (2016) How does sprawl differ across urban built-up land types in China? A spatial-temporal analysis of the Beijing metropolitan area using granted land parcel data. Cities 58: 1–9.
Johnson MP (2001) Environmental impacts of urban sprawl: a survey of the literature and proposed research agenda. Environment and Planning A. 33: 717–735.
Leichenko RM, Solecki D (2005) Exporting the American dream. The globalization of suburban consumption landscapes. Regional Studies. Vol. 39: 241–253.
Lien Skoga, K, Steinnes, M (2016) How do centrality, population growth and urban sprawl impactfarmland conversion in Norway?, Land Use Policy. 59: 185–196.
Litman T (2017) Understanding Smart Growth Savings, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 27: 1-57.
Lund C (2013) China's disappearing countryside: Towards sustainable land governance for the poor. Progress in Human Geography, 32(5): 722–723.
Mac Martin DH, Luke M, Toni A (2007) Remote Sensing Analysis of urban expansion in Birmingham Alabama: 1988-2004, Applied Geography Conferences, 30: 147-156.
Marshall D (2008) Reducing Urban Sprawl Could Play an important role in addressing climate change.American Chemical Society.‚Environmental Science & Technology. 33-37.
Masnavi MR (2003) Sustainable Development and New Paradigms for Urban Development. Journal of Ecology, Vol. 31: 89-104.
Maznooneyan H (1995) "Discussions about parks, green spaces, promenades", Department of Urban Services of Parks and Green Space in Tehran.32-59.
Mirkatoli J, Hosaini A, Rezayi-Neya H, Neshat AR (2013) Detection of Coverage and Land Use Change Approaches to Fuzzy Collections, A Case Study, Gorgan City, Human Geography Research, No. 79: 54-33.
Nami D, Fataei E, Najaei A and Zaeimdar M, (2017) Evaluation of environmental potential in Parsabad, Moghan for urban development using GIS and AHP, Environmental Science and Technology, 19(5): 475-486.
Park S, Jeon S, Kim SH, Choi CH (2011) Prediction and comparison of urban growth by land suitability index mapping using GIS and RS in South Korea, Landscape and Urban Planning. Volume 99 104-114.
Peng J, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Wu JS, Li W, You Li Y(2010) Evaluating theeffectiveness of landscape metrics in quantifying spatial patterns. Ecological Indicators .10 (2): 217–223.
Pham HM, Yamaguchi Y, Bui T (2011) A case study on the relation between city planning and urban growth using remote sensing and spatial metrics. Landscape and Urban Planning 100 (3): 223–230.
Poorahmad A, Salehi H, Roomiyani A (2015) Optimization of physical development of Urmia city in order to preserve vegetation and agricultural land, geography and planning, No. 19: 83-103.
Rezaee MR (2005) The skeletal-spatial development of the city and its environmental role (Shiraz), M.A. Thesis, Tarbiyat Modarres University: Department of Urbanism.27.
Robinson L, Newell JP, Marzluff, J (2005) Twenty-five years of sprawl in the Seattle region: growth management responses and implications for conservation, Landscape and Urban Planning .71:51–72.
Roostayi SH, Ali-Akbari S, Hossaion-zade R (2016) Investigating the Key Factors Affecting the Growth of Large Cities (Case Study: Urmia City), Journal of Urban Research and Planning, seventh year, No. 26: 74-53.
Różańsk, A, Daniel Z  (2016) Can urban sprawl lead to urban people governing rural areas? Evidence from the Dywity Commune, Poland, Cities. 59:57–65.
Saeidneya A(2000) Urban Green Space, Municipal Green Book, Urban Studies and Planning Center, Ministry of Interior, Ninth Edition, 1-178.
Serra P, Pons X, Saur D (2008) Land-cover and land-use change in a Mediterranean landscape: A spatial analysis of driving forces integrating biophysical and human factors, Applied Geography 28: 189–209.
Subudhi, BN, Bovolo F, Ghosh A, Bruzzone L (2014) Spatio-contextual fuzzy clustering with Markov random field model for change detection in remotely sensed images, Optics & Laser Technology 57: 284–292.
Sudhira, HS, Ramachandra, TV, Jagdish, KS (2004) Urban sprawl: metrics, dynamics and modeling using GIS. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 5: 29–39.
Sung, H, Oh, JT (2010) Transit-Oriented Development in a High-Density City: Identifying its Association with Transit Ridership in Seoul, Korea, Cities. 28: 70-82.
Szuster BW, Chen Q, Michael B (2011) A Comparison of Classification Techniques to Support Land Cover and Land Use Analysis in Tropical Coastal Zones, Applied Geography, Vol. 31: 525-532.
Tian Li, Biqing Ge, Yongfu Li (2016) Impacts of state-led and bottom-up urbanization on land use change in the peri-urban areas of Shanghai: Planned growth or uncontrolled sprawl?, Cities  60: 476-486.
Wassmer R (2002) Influences of the Fiscalization of Land Use and Urban-Growth, Journal of the American planning Association, Vol. 55: 23-37.
Weilenmann B, Irmi S, Tobias S (2017) The socio-economic determinants of urban sprawl between 1980 and2010 in Switzerland, Landscape and Urban Planning. 157: 468–482.
Wilson EH, Hurd JD, Civco DL, Prisloe S, Arnold C (2003) Development of a geospatial model to quantify, describe and map urban growth. Remote Sensing of Environment. 86(3): 275–285.
Youssef A, Pradhan B (2011) Integrated evaluation of urban development suitability based on remote sensing and GIS techniques: contribution from the analytic hierarchy process, Arab J Geosci, 4:463–473.
Zangiabadi A, Mokhtari R (2005) Cities, Green Space and Innovative Approach to Designing Human Dimensions, Payam Sabz Monthly, No. 42: 48-54.
Zhang T (2000) Land Market Forces and Government’s Role in Sprawl, Cities, Vol. 17: 123-135.
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Serial Number 4
February 2019
Pages 11-24
  • Receive Date: 13 October 2018
  • Revise Date: 02 March 2019
  • Accept Date: 12 January 2019
  • First Publish Date: 16 February 2019