Ozone Formation Potential and Toxicity Potential of VOCs emissions from a Nigerian petroleum products depot

Document Type : REVIEW PAPER

Author

faculty of engineering and technology university of ilorin

10.22034/ap.2020.1899618.1064

Abstract

Abstract: Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major causes of tropospheric ozone and aerosol pollutions. This research provided information on ozone formation potential (OFP) and toxicity potential (TP) resulting from VOCs emission from a Nigeria petroleum depot. In this work, speciated VOCs were provided on basis of updated emissions within and around the depot. The observed concentration of individual VOCs and maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) coefficient were applied to assess the OFP of individual VOC in the ambient atmosphere. Major aromatic VOCs species were considered at various locations. The total OFP in the atmosphere of the depot is 1522.42 μg O3/m3. Toluene specie was revealed to be major contributor to OFP with 71.47% while others species were in descending order of benzene (9.16%), m-xylene (8.41%), ethyl benzene (3.98%), p-xylene (3.51%) and o-xylene (3.46%). The TP levels of aerosols pollutions were also reported with respect to locations. The Slop tank area had the highest OFP and TP level. An assessment of TP level and OFP suggests that occupants of some location within the depot are exposed to unhealthy air conditions. The study established that OFP and TP have a relationship within the atmosphere of the depot with respect to location. It is recommended that aggressive controlled measures of VOCs sources should be adopted within the petroleum depot as a way of curtailing the impact of tropospheric ozone and aerosol pollutions.

Keywords


Appel, B.R., Tokiwa, Y., Hsu, J., Kothny, E.L., Hahn, E., 1985. Visibility as related to atmospheric aerosol constituents. Atmospheric Environment 19, 1525–1534.
 
Ariyaphanphitak W, Chidthaisong A, Sarobol E, Towprayoon S, 2005. Effects of elevated ozone concentrations on Thai jasmine rice cultivars (Oryza Sativa L.). Water Air Soil Pollut; 167:179-200. 8. Emberson l. Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: Submission
Atkinson, R.; Arey, J . 2003. Atmospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds. Chem. Rev, 103, 4605–4638.
 
ANSI/ASTM Procedures D-1605-60. (1979). Standard Recommended Practices for Sampling Atmosphere for Analysis   of Gases and Vapours
Blake D. R., D. F. Hurst, J. T. W. Smith 1992. “Summertime measurements of selected nonmethane hydrocarbons in the Arctic and Subarctic during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A),” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol. 97, no. 15, pp. 16559–16588.
 
Carter W. and Atkinson R,1989. An experimental study of incremental hydrocarbon reactivity. Environmental Science and Technology. 21,670-679,
Carter W., Pierce J., Luo D., Malkina l, 1995. Environmental chamber study of maximum incremental reactivities of volatile organic compounds. Atmospheric Environment, 29,18,2499-2511..
Carter, W.P.L. Development of the SAPRC-07 Chemical Mechanism and Updated Ozone Reactivity Scale. Revised Final Report to the California Air Resources Board Contract No. 03-318. 27 January 2010. Available online: http://intra.engr.ucr.edu/~{}carter/SAPRC/saprc07.pdf
Carter, W.P.L. 1995. Development of the SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism. Atmos. Environ.44,5324–5335.
Carter, W.P.L., 1994. Development of ozone reactivity scales for volatile organic compounds. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association 44, 881–899.
Chameides, W.L.; Fehsenfeld, F.; Rodgers, M.O.; Cardelino, C.; Martinez, J.; Parrish, D.; Lonneman, W.; Lawson, D.R.; Rasmussen, R.A.; Zimmerman, P.; 1992. Ozone precursor relationships in the ambient atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 97, 6037–6055.
Cocker III, D.R., Mader, B.T., Kalberer, M., Flagan, R.C., Seinfeld, J.H., 2001. The effect of water on gas–particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol: II. m-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene photooxidation systems. Atmospheric Environment 35, 6073–6085.
 
Fakunle B S, Adebayo B M, Aremu C O and Sonibare J A, 2019. Toxicity Potential of particulate in the airshed of a University farm. IOP conference series, Earth Environtal Science: 445 012036
 
Grosjean E,, Grosjean D. and Rasmussen R., 1998. Ambient concentrations, sources, emission rates and photochemical reactivity of C2-C1Ohydrocarbons in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Environmental Science & Technology, 32, 2061-2069.
 
Health Canada (1998) National Ambient Air Quality Objectives for Particulate matter Part 1: Science Assessment Document. A report by Federal Provincial Working Group on Air Quality Objectives and Guidelines, ISBN-O0662-63486-1
Han Meng, LU Xueqiang, ZHAO Chunsheng, RAN Liang, HAN Suqin. 2015: Characterization and Source Apportionment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban and Suburban Tianjin, China. Advances In Atmospheric Sciences, 32(3): 439-444  
Kwangsam Naa,, Kil-Choo Moona , Yong Pyo Kimb., 2005 .Source contribution to aromatic VOC concentration and ozone formation potential in the atmosphere of Seoul. Atmospheric Environment 39  5517–5524
Liu, Y.; Shao, M.; Fu, L. L.; Lu, S. H.; Zeng, L. M.; Tang, D. G., 2008. Source profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in China: Part I. Atmos. Eviron., 42 (25), 6247–6260.
Lee S. C.  , M. Y. Chiu, K. F. Ho, S. C. Zou, and X. Wang, 2002. “Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban atmosphere of Hong Kong,” Chemosphere, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 375–382.
Stockwell W., Geiger H,, Becker K. 2001. Estimation of incremental reactivities for multiple day scenarios: an application to ethane and dimethyoxymethane. Atmospheric Environment. 929-93.
Millet, D.B.; Goldstein, A.H.; Allan, J. D., 2004. “Volatile organic compound measurement at aerosol residence times”. Journal of geophysical research atmosphere, 109: 23 – 29 (6        pages)..https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2003JD004026%4010.1002/%28ISSN%292169-8996.ITCTPEACE1
Muhibbu-din, I. (2020). Investigation of Ambient Aromatic Volatile Organic Compounds in Mosimi Petroleum Products Depot, Sagamu, Nigeria. Anthropogenic Pollution Journal, 4(1), 65-78. doi: 10.22034/ap.2020.1892154.1060
Muhibbu-din, I.E., (2017). “Investigation of ambient volatile organic compounds in Mosimi petroleum products depot, Sagamu, Nigeria”. M.Sc Thesis Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso.
 
Odum, J.R., Jungkamp, T.P.W., Griffin, R.J., Forstner, H.J.L., Flagan, R.C., Seinfeld, J.H., 1997. Aromatics, reformulated gasoline and atmospheric organic aerosol formation. Environmental Science and Technology 31, 1890–1897.
Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE). (1999). A compendium of current knowledge of fine particulate in Ontario. PIBS 3790.
Pochanart P, Kreasuwun J, Sukasem P, Geeratihadaniyom W, Tabukanon MS, Hirokawa J, 2001. Tropical tropospheric ozone observed in Thailand. Atmos Environ;35:2657-68.
Russell A., Milford J., Bergin M.S., McBride S., McNair L., Yang Y., Stockwell B., Croes B. 1995. Urban ozone control and atmospheric reactivity of organic gases. Science, 269, 491-495.
US EPA. Health effects: Ground level ozone, 2012. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/glo/health.html
United State Environmental Protection Agency, IRIS Assessments 2013, Website: http //www.epa.gov/iris/htm
Vukovich F, 2000. Weekday/Weekend differences in OH reactivity with VOCS and CO in Baltimore, Maryland. Journal of the air and Waste management Association. 1843-1850.
Zhang Y H, H. Su, L. J. Zhong 2008., “Regional ozone
pollution and observation-based approach for analyzing ozone precursor relationship during the PRIDE-
PRD2004 campaign,”   Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 25, pp. 6203–6218
 
Zhang BN, Kim Oanh NT. 2002. Photochemical smog pollution in the Bangkok metropolitan region of Thailand in relation to O3 precursor concentrations and meteorological conditions. Atmos Environ; 36:42111-4222. Available from: http://www.sbcapcd.org/sbc/ aaqs.pdf.