Typology of Environmental Crimes in Iran (Case Study: Crimes Related to Environmental Pollution)

Document Type : REVIEW PAPER


1 Department of Environmental Law, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Law, Faculty of Law, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran



The purpose of the research is to identify the types of environmental pollution crimes in Iran. This research is a theoretical type that has been done by survey and analysis and has been done in 3 stages. Initially, an initial list of environmental crimes was used by a semi-structured interview method. Sampling was determined by the targeted method and the sample size was 169 people. All interviews were implemented and coded as text. In the next step, using expert opinions and the method of pairwise comparison, environmental crimes of weighting and their importance coefficient were determined. Then, by inquiring from the legal offices of the relevant organizations, the statistics of violations and environmental crimes by the provinces of the country between the years 2017 to 2019 were obtained. The results showed that the main crimes of environmental pollution in Iran can be divided into 8 main categories. Also, 23 criteria were determined for them. Among the eight crimes of environmental pollution, the highest weight belonged to air pollution (0.876) and then water pollution (0.797). Also; the lowest weight was allocated to wave pollution (0.114). A comparative comparison between environmental pollution crimes showed that between 2017 and 2019, statistically, the highest rate of crime was related to waste pollution and then water pollution. Mazandaran province with 6674 cases of environmental crimes in the top provinces of the country and Khorasan Razavi province was introduced as the last province with 223 cases of environmental crimes.


  1. Abedi, Z., Riahi M., Salehi, S. (2015). Economic Analysis of Environmental Crimes in its Implementation and Problems, J.Env. Sci. Tech., Vol 16, No.4, autumn 2015. (Persian). https://www.sid.ir/FileServer/JF/69213936313
  2. Akrami, F., Karimi, A., Abbasi, M., Shahrivari, A. (2018). Adapting the principles of biomedical ethics to Islamic principles and values in the context of public health policy. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 2018; 17(49): 46-59. (Persian).  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323586321_Adapting_the_principles_of_biomedical_ethics_to_islamic_principles_and_values_in_the_context_of_public_health_policy
  3. Amirfazli, M., Safarzadeh, S., Samadi Khadem, R. (2019). Identification, Classification and Management of Industrial Hazardous Waste in Ardabil Province, Anthropogenic Pollution Journal, Vol 3 (2), 2019: 29-36, DOI: 10.22034/ap.2019.668484
  4. Brisman, A., South, N. (2018). Green Criminology and Environmental Crimes and Harms, Sociology Compas, Volume13, Issue1. https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12650
  5. Cochran, J.C., Lynch, M.J., Toman, E.L. (2016). Court Sentencing Patterns for Environmental Crimes: Is There a “Green” Gap in Punishment?, Journal of Quantitative Criminology volume 34, pages37–66. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10940-016-9322-9.
  6. Dabiri, F., Poorhashemi, S.A., Khalatbari, Y., Zarei, S. (2016). Formation and Development of "Future Generation Rights" Concept in International Environmental Law, J.Env. Sci. Tech., Vol 18, No.3, autumn 2016. (Persian). https://www.sid.ir/FileServer/JF/69213950313
  7. Danesh Nari H, Moradfar A. (2016). Criminology of the Boom World: A New Approach to International Criminology Studies. International Policy Study Journal 2016; 21(1): 51-74. (Persian).  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/toc/15410072/2016/44/1
  8. Di Ronco, A., Allen‐Robertson, J., South, N. (2018). Representing environmental harm and resistance on Twitter: The case of the TAP pipeline in Italy. Crime Media Culture. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741659018760106. First Published March 7, 2018
  9. Editorial. (2018). America's Federally Financed Ghettos. The New York Times. Apr. 8: SR8. Published online as “America's Federally Financed Ghettos” on Apr. 7, 2018, at https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/07/opinion/sunday/americas‐federally‐financed‐ghettos.html
  10. EPA. 2016.  Basic Information on criminal enforcement, Annual report. 212 pp. http://epa.gov
  11. Fataei, E. (2017). Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus pools under exotic tree plantations in the degraded grasslands of Iran. Agricultural & Biological Research, 33(2), 113-127. https://www.cabi.org/ISC/abstract/20163103665
  12. Fataei, E. Monavari, S. Shariat, S. Leghaei, H. Ojaghi, A. (2005). Management of collection, transportation and landfilling of Solid Waste in Sarein City, The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Managent, Scopus,; 31, 229-224. http://ap.iauardabil.ac.ir/article_668484_1b0044c9e5c6a48876f2cc8b4d5
  13. Hajivand, A., Mirkamali, A., Safari, F., Sarvai Sarmidani, O. (2018). Government criminal responsibility for environmental crimes in Iran: Necessities and challenges, Environmental Sciences Vol.16, No.2, 65-82. (Persian). https://www.sid.ir/FileServer/JF/77113970205
  14. Heydarzadeh, E. Mozafari, S. (2014). Prevention of environmental offenses, Journal of Biological Ethics, Vol 3, No 7, 163-192 pp. https://www.sid.ir/FileServer/JF/4014713920705
  15. Lynch, M.J. Stretesky, P.B. 2011. Similarities between green criminology and green science: Toward a typology of green criminology, International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, Volume 35, 2011 - Issue 4: Environmental and Natural Resource Crime, https://doi.org/10.1080/01924036.2011.625233
  16. Mirkamali, A., Hajivand, A. (2017). Analyzing the Prevention of Environmental Crimes in the light of the United Nations Guidelines based on the Ethical Principle of Prevention of Harm,  Bioethics Journal, Winter 2017; 7(26): 61-75. (Persian).   https://www.sid.ir/FileServer/JF/4014713962605
  17. Pain, N. (2003). Criminal law and environmental protection- Overview of issues and themes. in: Environmental Crime: Proceeding of a Conference held 1-3 Sep. 2003 Hobart Neil Gunningham, Jennifer Norberry, and Sandra McKillop (eds.), available at:<http:// www.aic.gov.au/publications/proceedings/26/pain.pdf>.
  18. SEHN. (2008). Science and Environmental Health Network, The International Human Rights Clinic at Harvard Law School, modeles for Protecting the environment for future generations, October 2008, pP 12. 25.30. http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/hrp
  19. SIRI. (1989). Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Parliamentary Research Center, The second amendment.
  20. Soleimani, I. (2019). Right to Environment in the Islamic Sources,  Anthropogenic Pollution Journal, Vol 3 (1), 2019: 33-38, DOI: 10.22034/ap.2019.578586.1027
  21. UNICRI. 1991. Environmental crimes, United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, http://unicri.eu/institute/.
  22. White, R. (2016). Transnational Environmental Crime to the Criminology of the Boom World. Tehran: Mizan Publication; 2016, p.65. http://www.wwjournal.ir/article_87822_a90b9fb98c5ea78cf8a0766252b89bdb.pdf
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Serial Number 7
September 2020
Pages 78-83
  • Receive Date: 06 February 2020
  • Revise Date: 28 July 2020
  • Accept Date: 15 August 2020
  • First Publish Date: 01 September 2020