Waste Water Pollution zoning of sensitive coastal-marine areas with an environmental protection approach (Study area: Boujagh International Park and International Wetland)

Document Type : REVIEW PAPER


1 Department of Environmental Management, Environmental Law, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment (FNRE), Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Management, Environmental Law, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment (FNRE) , Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Pollution, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Management, Environmental Economics , Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment (FNRE) , Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.



Sensitive coastal areas are one of the most valuable habitats in the world. The purpose of this study is to zoning of wastewater pollution in Boujagh International Wetland. This research has been done by field method. At first, in order to facilitate the research work, using the networking technique, the whole study area was divided into 33 cells or 500 hectare assessment units (2.2 × 2.2 km networks). Then each criterion was quantified through scoring method (weighing). Quantifying the criteria was done by numeral weighing with restricted domains. Scoring criterion was done in six-step domains from at least 0 to at least 5. The ArcView software was used to draw maps. The research findings indicate that the study area is ecologically sensitive. Of course, the degree of ecological sensitivities varies in different places. The results show that only 3 parameters of nitrite (1.2 mg/l), Potassium (8.1 mg/l) and Co (0.8 μg/l) are in the standard range and the rest of the measured parameters are higher than the allowable limit. Also, the amount of TDS (450 mg/l) and nitrate (0.9 mg/l) was evaluated as average compared to the standard. In order to control the entry of sewage pollution into the wetland and its surrounding votes, it is necessary to take legal and administrative measures immediately.


Beatley T., Brower D., Schwab A.K., (2002). An introduction to coastal zone management. Second edition, Island press, USA, 329 p.
Chen J.L., Pekker T., Wilson C.R., Tapley B.D., Kostianoy A.G., Cretaux J.F., Safarov E.S., (2017). Long‐term Caspian Sea level change. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(13): 6993- 7001.
Cool G., (2010). Evaluation of the vulnerability to contamination of drinking water systems for rural regions in Que´bec, Canada. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 53: 615–638. DOI: 10.1080/09640561003727128
Danehkar A., Henrik M., (2004). Suggested criteria for assessment of the coastal – marine area of Iran to determine the area under the protection of Iran. Case study, the assessment of the area under the protection of The Caspian Seacoast. Journal of environmental studies number 35; 32-9.
Danehkar A., (2002). Sea sensitive areas of Iran and view of development. 5th International Conference on Coasts, Ports and Marine Structures (ICOPMAS) Ramsar, 14-17 October.
DOE, (2002). Department of the environment protection of Iran 1999. Protection plan of Iran’s wetlands. (Department of the natural environment and biological diversity)
Farhadi H., Fataei E., Kharat Sadeghi M., (2020). The Relationship Between Nitrate Distribution in Groundwater and Agricultural Landuse (Case study: Ardabil Plain, Iran), Anthropogenic Pollution Journal, Vol 4 (1), 2020: 50-56
Fataei E, Monavari S, Shariat S, Leghaei H, Ojaghi A, (2005) Management of collection, transportation and landfilling of Solid Waste in Sarein City, The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Managent, Scopus,; 31, 229-224.
http://ap.iauardabil.ac.ir/article_668484_1b0044c 9e5c6a48876f2cc8b4d
Forsythe D.P., (2012). Human Rights in International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, International Progress Organization. ISBN 2-08-900704-3.
Guo Y., Huang C., Zhang H., Dong Q., (2009). Heavy metal contamination from electronic waste recycling at Guiyu, Southeastern China. J Environ Qual. 38(4):1617-26.
Harley C.D., Randall Hughes A., Hultgren K.M., Miner B.G., Sorte C.J.,, Thornber C.S., Rodriguez L.F., Tomanek L., Williams S.L., (2006). The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems. Ecology letters, 9 (2):228-241.
Huang J., Nkrumah P., Anim D., Mensah E., (2014). E-waste disposal effects on the aquatic environment: A, Ghana. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 229:19-34 (WEEE) management practices in developing countries through leaching tests. African Journal. doi: 10.1007/978- 3-319-03777-6_2
Imanpour Namin J., Mohammadi M., Heydari S., Monsefrad F., (2011). Heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, in tissue. Liver of Esox Lucius and sediment from the Anzali international Lagoon – Iran. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 91: 1-8. Link: https://cjes.guilan.ac.ir/article_1056_260.html IMO/MEPC 46/23. (2001). Guidelines for the identification and design nation of particularly sensitive sea areas.
ANNEX 6, Jan. IUCN/WCPA., (1999). Guidelines for marine protected areas. Edited and coordinated by Graeme Kelleher.
Jhajharia D., Dinpashoh Y., Kahya E., Singh V.P., (2011). Trends in reference evapotranspiration in humid region of northeast India, Hydrological Processes, 15 pp. Doi: 10.1002/hyp.8140 Anthropogenic Pollution Journal, Vol 5 (1), 2021: 16-30 30
Majnoonian H., (2003). Guide to selecting and preparing management plans for coastal-marine protected areas. First Edition, Maaref Publications, 239 p.
Manikannan R., Asokan S., Samsoor-Ali A.M., (2011). Seasonal variations of physics- chemical properties of the great Vedaranyam swamp, point Calimeter wildlife sanctuary, South-east coast of India, African Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology 5 (9): 673-681. DOI:10.5897/AJEST11.126
Mokany K., Westcott D.A., Prasad S., Ford A.J. Metcalfe D.J., (2014). Identifying priority areas for conservation and management in diverse tropical forests. PloS one, 9(2): e89084.
Pascual M., Rossetto M., Ojea E., Milchakova N., Giakoumi S., Kark S., Korolesova D. Melià P., (2016). Socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Ocean and Coastal Management, 133: 1-10.
Qihang W., Leung j., Xinhua G., Shejun Ch., Xuexia H., Haiyan L., Zhuying H., Libin Z., Jiahao Ch., Yayin L., (2015). Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned ewaste recycling site: Implications for dissemination of heavy metals. Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 506–507, Pages 217-225. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.10.121
Rabani H., Jalalian A., Pournouri M., (2020). Typology of Environmental Crimes in Iran (Case Study: Crimes Related to Environmental Pollution), Anthropogenic Pollution Journal, Vol 4 (2), 2020: 78-83
Rostamabadi A., Jalali S., (2014). Water resources management in new legal order. Amirkabir University Publications, 779 p (in Persian). http://www.vraa.ir/wpcontent/uploads/2015/12/water_book_moghadam e.pdf
Salm R.V., Price A., (1995). Selection of Marine Protected Areas: Principles of Techniques for Management. Edited by Susan Gubby. Chapman and Hall, London. 1.
Salm R.V., Clark J.R., (1984). Marine and Coastal Protected Areas: A guide for planners and managers. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 396
Simeonov V., Simeonova P., Tsitouridou R., (2004). Chemometric qulity assessment of surface waters two case studies Chemical and Engineering Ecology, 11 (6): 449-469.
USEPA. (2007). Recent recommended water quality criteria. United State Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/wqc/nationalrecommended-water-quality-criteria-aquatic-lifecriteria-table
Virginie B., (2016). National sovereignty over natural resources: Environmental challenges and sustainable development Elisa Morgera and Kati Kulovesi. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781783478330
Yousefi A., Bahmanpour H., Salajegheh B., Dashtinejad S., (2013). Identification and study of birds in micro-habitats of Boujagh wetland, Quarterly Journal of Wetland Ecology - Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Vol. 5, No. 16, 19-32 pp.
  • Receive Date: 28 September 2020
  • Revise Date: 14 November 2020
  • Accept Date: 16 December 2020
  • First Publish Date: 27 February 2021