Measurement of sound level in sports clubs with the approach of maintaining the health of athletes



1 Graduate Institute of Tourism Management, National Kaosiung University of Hospitality and Tourism Nationality, Taiwan, China

2 Department of Environment, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, Shahroud, Iran

3 Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Science, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood, Iran



The purpose of this study is to measure the sound level in bodybuilding clubs in Mashhad with the approach of maintaining the health of athletes. The metropolis of Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan Razavi province, is located in northeastern Iran. Fifteen bodybuilding clubs were randomly selected by networking method. The sound level in the clubs was measured in level A and as an equivalent level by the portable device and software Decibel X version 2019 and was compared with the sound standard (OSHA-90 dBA). Measurements were made in the morning and evening. The parameters of sound pressure level (SPL), mean sound level (LP) ̅continuous sound equivalent level (Leq) and individual daily dose of LAEp, d were calculated. The lowest sound pressure level in the morning was 76.5 decibels and the highest pressure level in the evening was 99.4 decibels. There was a direct relationship between sound pressure level and athletes' time in the club. The average sound level in sports clubs is equal to 87.6 dB and the level is equal to 90.61 and the daily individual dose of LEp, d athlete in the club is equal to 84.58 dB. The permissible duration of exposure to noise for athletes was estimated at 1 hour and 40 minutes. In the gymnasiums of Mashhad, athletes are exposed to high noise pollution and the possibility of physical and mental injuries is high.


Main Subjects

Abbaspoor M., (2016). Environmental engineering, second edition, Islamic Azad University, 628 p. [In Persian]. C Gü Yı ı ı O h 2002 Noise Pollution in Sports Areas and Researching Health Risks Result from Noise Pollution, 16, 281-288
Agrawal Y., Niparko JK., Dobie RA., (2010). Estimating the effect of occupational noise exposure on hearing thresholds: the importance of adjusting for confounding variables. Ear and hearing. 2010; 31: 234-237.
Babisch W., Pershagen G., Selander J., Houthuijs D., Breugelmans O., Cadum, E., (2013). Noise annoyance e a modifier of the association between noise level and cardiovascular health? Sci. Tot. Environ. 452-453.
Babisch W., Van Kamp I., (2009). Exposureresponse relationship of the association between aircraft noise and the risk of hypertension. Noise Health. 11, 161-168.
Babisch W., Houthuijs D., Pershagen G., Cadum E., Katsouyanni K., Velonakis M., Dudley ML., Marohn HD., Swart W. Breugelmans O., (2009). Annoyance due to aircraft noise has increased over the years—results of the HYENA study. Environment International, 35: 1169-1176.
Bahmanpour H., Salajegheh B., Mafi A., (2011). Investigating the Environmental Situation of Darband Mountains, Environmental Report, Environmental and Energy Research Center, 247 pp. [In Persian].
Bazaras J., (2006). Internal noise modeling problems of transport power equipment. Transport 2006; 21(1); 19-24.
Blanchfield B., Feldman J., Dunbar J., Gardner E., (2001). The severely to profoundly hearingimpaired population in the United States: Prevalence estimates and demographics. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 2001; 12, 183–189.
Chernushenko D., Vander Kamp A., Stubbs D., (2001). Sustainable Sport Management: Running an Environmentally, Socially and Economically Responsible Organization, URI:
Clark C., Head J., Stansfeld SA., (2013). Longitudinal effects of aircraft noise exposure on children's health and cognition: a six-year follow-up of the UK RANCH cohort. J. Environ. Psychol. 2013; 35, 1e9
Clark WW., (1991). Noise exposure from leisure activities: A review. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 90, 175–181.
Dalton DS., Cruickshanks KJ., Wiley TL., Klein BE., Klein R., Tweed TS., (2001). Association of leisure-time noise exposure and hearing loss. International Journal of Audiology, 40, 1–9.
Dobie R., (1999). Economic comparison for hearing loss. Occup Med State Art Rev 10: 663-668 D Ş Öz C 1999 g h M of Noise Pollution in Konya City Centre, Project No: 97-081, Konya
Evans G., Hygge S., (2007). Noise and performance in adults and children. In: Luxon, L., Prasher, D. (Eds.), Noise and its Effects. Whurr Publishers, London.
EPA., (2014). Information on levels of environmental noise requisite to protect public health welfare with an adequate margin of safety, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA technical document.
Fataei E., Monavari SM., Hasani A/, Mirbagheri A., Karbasi A., (2011) Surface Water Quality Assessment Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques, Environmental sciences,8 (4), 137- 146.
Ghanbari M., Nadafi K., Mosaferi M., Yoonesian M., Aslani H., (2011). Study of noise pollution in the city of Tabriz in commercial and residential districts of Iran, Journal of Health and Environment, Iranian Society of Environmental Health, Fourth Edition, No.3, 375-384 pp. [In Persian].
Golmohammadi R., (2010). Evaluation of Noise Propagation Characteristics of Compressors in Tehran Oil Refinery Center and Presenting Control Methods, Journal of Research in Health Sciences (JRHS). South T. Managing noise and vibration at work; a practical guide to assessment, measurement and control, Routledge; 1 edition, 2016; ISBN-13: 978- 1138177994, 280 p.
Hansell AL., Blangiardo M., Fortunato L., Floud S., Hoogh K., Fecht D., (2013). Aircraft noise and cardiovascular disease near London Heathrow Airport. Br. Med. J. 8, 347:f5432.
Hassmen, P., Koivula, N. (2001). Cardiac Deceleration in Elite Golfers as Modified by Noise and Anxiety during Putting Percept Mot Skills, 92, 947-957
IOC., (2000). International Olympic Committee, Agenda21 for Sport. Lausanne: Author.
Karimi E., Nassiri P., Monnazam M., (2011). Noise Pollution assessment in 14 distinctions of Tehran. Human and environment. 23. [In Persian].
Monazzam MR., Naderzadeh M., Nassiri P., Momen Bellah S., (2010). Performance of PRD welled surfaces in t shape noise barriers for Anthropogenic Pollution Journal, Vol 2 (2), 2018: 62-71 71 controlling environmental noise. Iranian Journal of Health and Environment. 3(2):213-26 [In Persian].
Motallebi Kashani M., Hannani M., Akbari H., Almasi H., (2002). Noise Pollution Survey in Kashan City (2000- 2001). Feyz Journal. 6(1):30-36 [In Persian].
Muhr P., Rasmussen F., Rosenhall U., (2007). Prevalence of hearing loss among 18-year-old Swedish men during the period 1971–1995. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 35, 524– 532.
Nassiri P., Monazam Esmaeelpour M., Rahimi Foroushani A., Ebrahimi H., Salimi Y., (2009). Occupational noise exposure evaluation in drivers of bus transportation of Tehran City. Iranian Journal of Health and Environment. 2(2):124-31 [In Persian].
OEL., (2017). Assessment guideline for Noise and Vibration, Islamic Republic of IRAN Ministry of Health and Medical Education Environmental and Occupational Health Center (EOHC)
Parkes A., Kearns A., Atkinson R., (2002). What Makes People Dissatisfied with their Neighborhoods? Urban Studies. 39: 2413–38.
Rabani H., Jalalian A., Pournouri M., (2020). Typology of Environmental Crimes in Iran (Case Study: Crimes Related to Environmental Pollution), Anthropogenic Pollution Journal, Vol 4 (2), 2020: 78-83
Ringen K., (1994). National conference on ergonomics, safety and health in construction summary report. Am J Ind Med. 25:775-781
Sommerhoff J., Recuero M., Suárez E., (2004). Community noise survey of the city of Valdivia, Chile. Applied Acoustics. 2004; 65(7):643–56.
Sorensen M., Andersen ZJ., Nordsborg RB., Jensen SS., Lillelund KG., Beelen R., (2007). Road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study. PLoS One, 7 (6), e39283. journal.pone.0039283.
South T., (2004). Managing noise and vibration at work, Oxford, Elsevier. Stansfeld S., Haines M., Brown B., (2000). Noise and Health in the Urban M Environment,"Reviews of Environmental Health, 15:43-82.
Stansfeld SA., Matheson MP., (2003). Noise pollution: non-auditory effects on health. Br. Med. Bull. 68, 243-257.
Sukru D., Celalettin O., Hakan K., Sain K., (2006). Noise pollution and map of Konja city in Turkey. Journal of International Environmental Application and Science. 1(1–2):63–72.
Taheri M., Tayebi Sani SM., Bahmanpour H., Fahiminejad A., (2019). Measurement of Sound Level in Sport Natural Areas Using the M g h ’ H h h Th Case of Darakeh Mountainous Region, Tehran), Ann Appl Sport Sci 7(4): 787.
Tin L., Lim O., (2000). A study on the effects of discotheque noise on the hearing of young patrons. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 12, 37–40.
Vogel I., Brug J., Vander Ploeg C., Raat H., (2007). Yo g ’ x : summary of the literature. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33, 124–133.
Vogiatzis K., (2012). Airport environmental noise mapping and land use management as an environmental protection action policy tool. The case of the Larnaka International Airport (Cyprus). Sci Total Environ; 424:162–73.
World Health Organization and Joint Research Council (WHOeJRC). 2011. Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise. Quantification of Health Life Years Lost in Europe. Denmark, Copenhagen. Available at: assets/pdf_file/0008/136466/e94888.pdf (accessed 29.07. 14.).
WG-AEN., (2007). Good practice guide for strategic noise mapping and the production of associated data on noise exposure. Position paper. European Commission Working Group Assessment of Exposure to Noise (WG-AEN): Version 2; August 2007.
WHO., (2011). European Centre for Environment and Health. Burden of disease from environmental noise quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe 2011. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
Yang W., Kang J., (2005). Acoustic comfort evaluation in urban open public spaces. Applied Acoustics. 66: 211–29.
Zannin PHT., Calixto A., Diniz FB., Ferreira JACA., (2003). Survey of urban noise annoyance in a large Brazilian city: the importance of a subjective analysis in conjunction with an objective analysis. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 23(2):245–55.
  • Receive Date: 09 February 2021
  • Revise Date: 28 February 2021
  • Accept Date: 05 March 2021
  • First Publish Date: 08 March 2021