Application of Steam Enhanced Extraction method on BTEX contaminated soil in a Nigerian petroleum depot and Automobile workshop sites in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria.

Document Type : ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER

Authors

1 faculty of engineering and technology university of ilorin

2 Kwara State Ministry of Works and Housing, Ilorin, Nigeria

10.22034/ap.2021.1931233.1107

Abstract

. Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX) are major causes of contaminated soil. This is due to fuel leakages or spillages, various forms hydrocarbon burning/combustion and land disposal petroleum base oil.

Contaminated soil samples were excavated from two different locations within Ilorin metropolis; pipelines and products marketing company, a Nigerian petroleum depot, Ilorin depot and auto mechanic workshop of over ten years. Steam enhanced extraction method was employed through injection of steam to contaminated soil from steam generator into soil pot where contaminated soil was placed. After the remediation process the steam soil samples were taken to the laboratory where the sonication extraction technique was used to extract the contaminants (BTEX) from the steamed soil samples of 30, 60 and 90 minutes respectively. The extract from the steamed soil samples of 30, 60 and 90 minutes were subjected Gas Chromatography fitted with flame ionization detector analysis to determine the exact amount of BTEX removed after remediation process.

Pre-treated soil sample of auto mechanics workshop was found to be 4.5004 x 10-1 mg/kg and post-treated soil samples were found to be 1.8164 x10-1 mg/kg, 8.7519 x10-1 mg/kg and 5.7006 x10-2 mg/kg for 30, 60 and 90 minutes respectively after remediation process while Pre-treated soil sample of a Nigerian petroleum depot was found to be 6.6049 x 10-1 mg/kg and post-treated soil samples were found to be 2.9320 x10-1 mg/kg, 1.9855 x10-1 mg/kg and 1.0237 x10-1 mg/kg for 30, 60 and 90 minutes respectively after remediation process

Keywords

Main Subjects


Ahaneku I.E.  (2011). Infiltration Characteristics of Two Major Agricultural Soils in North Central Nigeria. Agricultural Science Research Journals vol. 1(7); pp.166-171, September 2011
Art, H.W., (1993). Volatile Organic Compounds in Art, H.W., ed., A dictionary of ecology and environmental sciences: New York, Henry Holt and Company. p.581
Baker, R.S. and G. Heron. (2004). In-situ delivery of heat by thermal conduction and steam    injection for improved DNAPL remediation. Proceedings of the 4th International Conf.  on remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA, May 24-27, 2004.  Battelle, Columbus, OH.
Beyke, G. and D. Fleming.  (2002). Enhanced removal of separate phase viscous fuel by electrical resistance heating and multi-phase extraction. 9th Annual International Petroleum Environmental Conference, October 22-25, 2002, Albuquerque, NM.          
Beyke, G. and D. Fleming. (2005). In situ thermal remediation of DNAPL and LNAPL using  Electrical resistance heating Remediation,15(3):5-22pp
Bouyoucous CJ (1951). A recalibration of the hydrometer mechanical analysis of soil.Agron.J.     
43: 434- 438pp
Blundy, R. and P. Zionkowski.  (1997). Final Report: Demonstration of Plasma In Situ Vitrification at the 904-65G K-Reactor Seepage Basin, WSRC-RP-97405.Westinghouse    Savannah River Company,192 pp.  
Block,P., R. Brown, and D. Robinson (2004). Novel activation technologies for sodium Per     sulphate in-situ chemical oxidation. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on      the Remediation of Chlorinated oxidation Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA    
Cohen, R.M., and Mercer, J.W., (1993), DNAPL site evaluation: C.K Smoley, 384 p.
Cole, G.M (1994) Assessment and Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites CRC Press  Boca  Raton, Florida
Davis, E. (1997). Ground Water Issue: How Heat Can Enhance In-situ Soil and Aquifer  Remediation: Important  Chemical Properties and Guidance on Choosing the Appropriate   Technique, EPA 540/S-97/502.U.S. EPA., Office of Research and  Development, 18 pp.
Davis, E. (1998). Steam Injection for Soil and Aquifer Remediation, EPA 540/S-97/505. US   
EPA, Office of Research and Development, 16 pp.     
Davis, E., et al. (2005). Steam Enhanced Remediation Research for DNAPL in Fractured Rock, Loring Air Force Base, Limestone, Maine, EPA 540/R-05/010.
English standard institution (E.S.I) part II-1973. Determination of moisture content by oven-drying of soil sample
Esmaeilzadeh, H., Fataei, E., Saadati, H. (2020). NH3 Removal from Sour Water by Clinoptilolite Zeolite: A Case Study of Tabriz Refinery. Chemical Methodologies, 4(6), 754-773. doi: 10.22034/chemm.2020.113660
Fetter C.W (1994) applied hydrogeology,3rd edition, new York .Macmillan college publishing    company 691p , porosity measurement is on p 81
Hatheway, A. (2006). Long-Term Fate And Transport Characteristics Of Manufactured Gas    Plant Residuals And Wastes. 
Luthy, R.G., Dzombak, D.A., Peters, C.A., Roy, S.B., Ramaswami, A. (1994). Remediating  Tar-Contaminated Soils at MGP Sites. Environmental Science and Technology, 28(6),226-  276pp.
Pope, D. et al. (2004). Performance Monitoring of MNA Remedies for VOCs in Ground Water,  EPA/600/R-04/027, U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development.   
Riser-Roberts, E., (1998). Remediation of petroleum contaminated soils: Biological, Physical and Chemical processes. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers.
Sleep and McClure (2001). Removal of Volatile and Semi-volatile Organic Contamination from Soil by Air and Steam Flushing.
Thornburg, T. et al. (2005). Effectiveness of in situ cement stabilization for remediation of    sediment containing coal tar derived hydrocarbons. The Annual International Conference on  Contaminated Soils, Sediments, and Water, October 17-20, 2005, University of  Massachusetts, Amherst. http://www. umasssoils.com/abstracts2005/Thursday/evolving  %20strategies.htm
US EPA. (1990).Control technique for volatile organic emission from stationary source. Report no: EPA 450/2-78-022.Research Triangle Park NC. National Technical information service. May 1990
US EPA. (1991). Engineering Bulletin: In Situ Soil Flushing, EPA 540/2-91/021. Office of    Research and Development, 7 pp.
US EPA. (1995). Geosafe Corporation In Situ Vitrification Innovative Technology Evaluation Report, EPA 540/R-94/520. Office of Research and Development, 148 pp.                  
US EPA. (1997). Analysis of Selected Enhancements for Soil Vapor Extraction, EPA 542/R 97/007. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, 246 pp.                  
US Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Waste and cleanup risk assessment glossary:   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, access date May 26, 2010.
Van Eyk, J., and Vreeken C. (1991). In Situ and On-site subsoil and Aquifer restoration at retail Gas- station: Robert E. Hinchee and Robert F. Olfenbuttel (ed) Insitu Bioreclamation Butterworth-Heinemann, Stoneham Massachusetts pp.303-320
Van Cauwenberghe, L. (1997). Electrokinetics. Technology Overview Report. Ground Water  
Remediation Technologies Analysis Center.
Wilson, W.E., and Moore J.E., (1998). Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, Glossary of Hydrology: Alexandria, Virginia, America Geological Institute, p.20
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Serial Number 9
September 2021
Pages 30-38
  • Receive Date: 21 May 2021
  • Revise Date: 04 June 2021
  • Accept Date: 23 August 2021
  • First Publish Date: 01 September 2021