Document Type : REVIEW PAPER
DHA, Phase VI, Lahore
Department of Chemistry, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
Department of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, DHA Phase VI, Lahore, Pakistan
Current studies are performed to review the past 20 years literature regarding the impact of global warming and climatic changes on water availability, its quality/quantity/yield and consequent effects on nutrients, freshwater and biota. Water resources are susceptible to changes in climate. The water holding capacity of the atmosphere is increased with the rise of temperature. Global warming will cause increased sea levels due to the spreading of oceans and melting of glaciers. The flow of affected freshwater into the oceans will cause variations in stratification, nutrient availability, salinity, and turbidity, which will affect tourism, agriculture, and industry. The total amount of organic carbon availability varies from winter to warming, and there are also changes in enzymes' activities. There is a vast shift in rainfall due to climate changes. The intense precipitation, runoff, erosion, and transfer of a vast number of pollutants into the groundwater affect drinking water quality. Many organisms such as animals and plants migrate to other regions, so the biological composition of natural ecosystem agriculture is modified. We cannot measure these complicated processes precisely, yet we roughly estimate these processes through the extinction of species and variation in productivity. The temperature has a pronounced effect on the distribution of various species in different geographical regions. Warming shows an impact on interspecific and intraspecific interaction. It also has an impact growth period and yield of crops. The use of future climate models enables us to understand the environmental issues and future climate changes thoroughly.