Evaluating Climate Change and Anthropogenic effects on inducing Salt Storms & Aerosol Hazards Risk in Urmia Lake

Document Type : REVIEW PAPER


1 Shhis Rajaee Teacher trining University

2 Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University

3 Shahi Rajaee University



Urmia Lake is the largest inland wetland in Iran, which is shrinking. The gradual drying of Lake Urmia has been a national and international issue for several years. In recent decades, climate change, dam constrictions, unsustainable industrial development and excess exploitation of groundwater for agriculture have been the main cause of drying of Lake Urmia. It has been proven that in the case of lakes drying up, this change has an effect on the global climate. Considering the salinity of Urmia Lake and direction of the wind (principally in a W-E trending), the eastern coastal area of Urmia Lake is seriously in danger of salt intrusion into the soil and underground water that can totally affect the lives of the local population. It also endangers the existence of fauna and flora. This paper attempts to clarify the danger of drying Urmia Lake and salt dumping at the beds of lake and determine the effective parameters, using GIS® and ENVI software. Among the causes of Urmia lake dryness, the dam constrictions have been identified as the cases that has more drastic effects on Urmia lake.


Abrahams A. D. And Parsons, A. J. (1994). Geomorphology of desert environments. Edited by Athol D. Abrahams and Anthony J. Parsons. Published by Chapman and Hall, London. ISBN 978-94-015-8256-8.
Babayan A., Hakobyan S., Jenderedjian K., Muradyan S. And Voskanov M. (2003). Lake Sevan, lake basin management initiative experience, and lessons learned brief. Lake basin management initiative regional workshop in Europe. Central Asia and the Americas held at Saint Michaels College in Vermont, USA, 18-21 June. http://www.worldlakes.org/uploads/sevan_01oc t2004.pdf
Bayes Ahmed, Raquib Ahmed, Xuan Zhu, 2013, Evaluation of Model Validation Techniques in Land Cover Dynamics, ISPRS International Journal of o-Information. www.mdpi.com/journal/ijgi/, ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2, 577-597; doi: 10.3390/ijgi2030577
Brookfield M.E., Ahlbrandt T.S. (1983) Eolian sediments and processes. Elsevier, New York in Brooks A. And Agate, E. (Eds) (1997). Sand Dunes: A practical handbook, 3rd edition, British Trust for Conservation Volunteers, Wallingford.
Chander G. and Markham B. (2003). Revised Landsat-5 TM radiometric calibration procedures and post calibration dynamic ranges. Geoscience and Remote Sensing IEEE Transactions, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?p unumber=36 Vol. 41, Issue 11. Custodio E. (1985). Saline intrusion, hydrology in the service of man. Memories of the 18th Congress of the International Association of Hydrogeologists, Cambridge, pp. 65-90. Cohen, J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ. Psychol. Meas. 1960, 20, 37–46. Eimanifar A., Rezvani S. and Carapetian J. (2006): Genetic differentiation of Artemia urmiana from various ecological populations of Urmia Lake assessed by PCR amplified RFLP analysis. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 333 (2), pp 275-285. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10 . Hassanzadeh E., Zarghami M., and Hassanzadeh Y. (2012). Determining the main factors in declining the Urmia Lake level by using system 32 Anthropogenic Pollution Journal, Vol 3 (1), 2019: 25-32 dynamics modeling. Journal of Water Resource Manage, Vol. 26, pp. 129-145. Article in Water Resources Management· October 2012 DOI: 10.1007/s11269-011-9909-8. Jain, S. (2014). Fundamentals of Physical Geology, Springer Geology, DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322- 1539-4-13, Springer India. Kitada, K.; Fukuyama, K. Land-use and land-cover mapping using a gradable classification method. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 1544–1558. Long, J.B.; Giri, C. 2011, Mapping the Philippines’ mangrove forests using Landsat imagery. Sensors 2011, 11, 2972–2981. Malian A., Mohamadi A., Valiallahi J. 2017. “Detection and prediction of the trend of Lake Urmia and its surrounding environment over the past half century on the basis of the remote sensing spatial analysis of the location.” Journal of Hydro-geomorphology,No 9, 2017 pages: 43-62, in Persian.http://hyd.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_6180_71 b3a7e9fba531bb345de4ed7e644b35.pdf Marjani A. and Jamali M. (2014). The role of exchange flow in the salt water balance of Urmia Lake.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/arti cle/pii/S0377026513000559 . Original Research Article, Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, Vol. 65, March 2014, pp. 1-16. Manaffar R, Zare S, N. Agh, Siyabgodsi A, Soltanian S. 2011, Sediment cores from Lake Urmia (Iran) suggest the inhabitation by parthenogenetic Artemia around 5,000 years ago - Hydrobiologia, 671 (1), 65. Mostofie N, Fataei E, Hezhabrpour Gh, Kheikhah Zarkesh MM. (2014) Assessment centers and distribution centers dust (case study:NorthWest,Iran) , International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences, 3 (2): 235-243. National Cartographic Center (NCC), Iran. http://www.ncc.org.ir/ Pontius, R.G., Jr. 2000, Quantification error versus location error in the comparison of categorical maps. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 2000, 66, 1011–1016. Pontius, R.G., Jr. 2002, Statistical methods to partition effects of quantity and location during comparison of categorical maps at multiple resolutions. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 2002, 68, 1041–1049. QIU Han-xue, LIU Dong-yan, LIU Guan-qun and NING Pi-hai (1997). Saline water intrusion and its influence in the Laizhou Area. Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol., Vol 15, No. 4, pp. 342-349. Ryahi, H.; Soltani, N.; Shokravi, S. 1994, Study of Urmia Lake algae flora. Pajouhesh-vaSazandeghi 1994, 25, 23–25. www.alirezaasem.ir/Asem23.pdf Sima S. and Tajrishy M. (2013). --Using satellite data to extract volume eare aelevation relationships for Urmia Lake, Iran. Original Research Article. Journal of Great Lakes Research, Vol. 39, Issue 1, March 2013, pp. 90-99. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S038 0133012002493 Simonett D. S. (1968). Wind action. In: Fairbridge R.W. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Geomorphology. Reinhold, New York, pp 1233-1236. Williams V. J. (2010). The ecological effects of saltwater intrusion on the agriculture industry after Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp 29-37. http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jsd/a rticle/viewFile/3821/4458 .